Book 6 GT A

Antiquated (adjective) Synonym: Obsolete

(of things or ideas) old-fashioned and no longer suitable for modern conditions

· Antiquated legal procedures

· The antiquated heating system barely heats the larger rooms.

· The committee has recommended that all antiquated legal procedures should be simplified.

Appointments (noun) Synonym: Anorexic

[countable] a formal arrangement to meet or visit somebody at a particular time, especially for a reason connected with their work

· I've got a dental appointment at 3 o'clock.

· Do you have an appointment?

· To make/keep an appointmentViewing is by appointment only (= only at a time that has been arranged in advance).

· An appointment book

Appointment with somebody

· an appointment with my lawyer

Appointment for something

· An appointment for a blood test

Appointment for somebody to do something

· She made an appointment for her son to see the doctor.

[countable, uncountable] appointment (as/to something) the act of choosing a person for a job or position of responsibility; the fact of being chosen for a job, etc.

· Her recent appointment to the posthis appointment as principalthe appointment of a new captain for the England team

· Appointments and dismissals

[countable] a job or position of responsibility

· A permanent/first appointment

· The department wished him success in his new appointment as sales manager.

Coastal (adjective) Synonym: Seaside

Of or near a coast

· Coastal waters/resorts/scenery

· A coastal path (= one that follows the line of the coast)

Commensing(verb) Synonym: Starting

To begin to happen; to begin something

· The meeting is scheduled to commence at noon.

· I will be on leave during the week commencing 15 February.

Commence with something

· The day commenced with a welcome from the principal.

Commence something

· She commenced her medical career in 1956.

· The company commenced operations in April.

· To commence bankruptcy proceedings against somebody

Commence doing something

· We commence building next week.

Commence to do something

· Operators commenced to build pipelines in 1862.

Commodity (noun) Synonym: Possession

(economics) a product or a raw material that can be bought and sold

· Rice, flour and other basic commoditiesa drop in commodity prices

· Crude oil is the world's most important commodity.

(formal) a thing that is useful or has a useful quality

· Water is a precious commodity that is often taken for granted in the West.

Concentrate (verb) Synonym: Focus

[intransitive, transitive] to give all your attention to something and not think about anything else

Concentrate (on something/on doing something)

· I can't concentrate with all that noise going on.

Concentrate something

· Nothing concentrates the mind better than the knowledge that you could die tomorrow (= it makes you think very clearly).

Concentrate something (on something/on doing something)

· I decided to concentrate all my efforts on finding somewhere to live.

[transitive] concentrate something + adv./prep. to bring something together in one place

· Power is largely concentrated in the hands of a small elite.

· We need to concentrate resources on the most run-down areas.

· Fighting was concentrated around the towns to the north.

Conserving (verb) Synonym: Protect

Conserve something to use as little of something as possible so that it lasts a long time

  • · Help to conserve energy by insulating your home.
  • · Renewable energy resources can help conserve fossil fuels and reduce carbon emissions.

Conserve something to protect something and prevent it from being changed or destroyed

· New laws to conserve wildlife in the area

Consumption (noun) Synonym: Use

The act of using energy, food or materials; the amount used

· The production of fuel for domestic consumption (= to be used in the country where it is produced)

· Gas and oil consumption always increases in cold weather.The meat was declared unfit for human consumption.

· He was advised to reduce his alcohol consumption.

· Her speech to party members was not intended for public consumption (= to be heard by the public).

The act of buying and using products

· Consumption rather than saving has become the central feature of contemporary societies.

(old-fashioned) a serious infectious disease of the lungs

· I have consumption.

Deforestation (noun) Synonym: Desertification

The act of cutting down or burning the trees in an area

· Land erosion caused by widespread deforestation

Diarrhoea(noun) Synonym: Loose motion

An illness in which waste matter is emptied from the bowels much more frequently than normal, and in liquid form

· Symptoms include diarrhoea and vomiting.

Discrepancies (noun) Synonym: Anorexic

A difference between two or more things that should be the same

Discrepancy (in something)

· Wide discrepancies in prices quoted for the work

Discrepancy (between A and B)

· What are the reasons for the discrepancy between girls' and boys' performance in school?


Efficiency (noun) Synonym: Competence

[uncountable] the quality of doing something well with no waste of time or money

· Improvements in efficiency at the factory

· I was impressed by the efficiency with which she handled the crisis.

Efficiencies [plural] ways of wasting less time and money or of saving time or money

· We are looking at our business to see where savings and efficiencies can be made.

[uncountable] (specialist) the relationship between the amount of energy that goes into a machine or an engine, and the amount that it produces

· The efficiency of new model of motor pump is much better than the previous model.

Flushed (adjective) Synonym: Rosy

(of a person) red; with a red face

· Flushed cheeks

· You look flushed—have you been running?

· Her face was flushed with anger.

· (figurative) He was flushed with success (= very excited and pleased) after his first novel was published.

Immunizations (noun) Synonym: Protection

The act of protecting a person or an animal from a disease, especially by giving them an injection of a vaccine

· An immunization programme to prevent epidemics

Incentive (noun) Synonym: Impetus

[countable, uncountable] incentive (for/to somebody/something) (to do something) something that encourages you to do something

· There is no incentive for people to save fuel.

· There is an added incentive for you to buy from our catalogue—a free gift with every purchase.

A payment or concession (= a reduction in the amount of money that has to be paid) that encourages somebody to do something

· Tax incentives to encourage savings

Inclusive (adjective) Synonym: Comprehensive

Having the total cost, or the cost of something that is mentioned, contained in the price

· The fully inclusive fare for the trip is £52.

Inclusive of something The rent is inclusive of water and heating.

(from)… to… inclusive (British English) including all the days, months, numbers, etc. mentioned

· We are offering free holidays for children aged two to eleven inclusive.

· The castle is open daily from May to October inclusive.

Including a wide range of people, things, ideas, etc.

· The party must adopt more inclusive strategies and a broader vision.

Instance (noun) Synonym: Situation

A particular example or case of something

· The report highlights a number of instances of injustice.

· In most instances, there will be no need for further treatment.

· I would normally suggest taking time off work, but in this instance I'm not sure that would do any good

Insufficient (adjective) Synonym: Scarce

Insufficient (to do something) | insufficient (for something) (formal) not large, strong or important enough for a particular purpose

· Insufficient time

· His salary is insufficient to meet his needs.

· There are fears that the existing flood barrier may prove insufficient.

· I’m afraid we have insufficient evidence.

Irrigation (noun) Synonym: Watering

The practice of supplying water to an area of land through pipes or channels so that crops will grow

· Irrigation channels

· Irrigation has increased the area of cultivable land.

Manufacturing (noun) Synonym: Production

The business or industry of producing goods in large quantities in factories, etc.

· Many jobs in manufacturing were lost during the recession.

· The company has established its first manufacturing base in Europe.

Matinee (noun) Synonym: Performance

An afternoon performance of a play, etc.; an afternoon showing of a film/movie

· I have managed to get two tickets for a matinee show.

Mediterranean (adjective) Synonym: Mediterranean

Connected with the Mediterranean Sea or the countries and regions that surround it; typical of this area

· A Mediterranean countrya Mediterranean climate

Phenomenon (noun) Synonym: Event

A fact or an event in nature or society, especially one that is not fully understood

· Cultural/natural/social phenomena

· Globalization is a phenomenon of the 21st century.

· Early retirement is a relatively new phenomenon in Britain.

Prosperous (adjective) Synonym: Affluent

Rich and successful

· Prosperous countries

· Farmers are more prosperous in the south of the country.

Recreation (noun) Synonym: Entertainment

The act or process of making something that existed in the past exist or seem to exist again

· The writer attempts a recreation of the sights and sounds of his childhood.

Strain (noun) Synonym: Anxiety

[uncountable, countable] pressure on somebody/something because they have too much to do or manage, or something very difficult to deal with; the problems, worry or anxiety that this produces

· Their marriage is under great strain at the moment.

· These repayments are putting a strain on our finances.

· Relax, and let us take the strain (= do things for you).

· You will learn to cope with the stresses and strains of public life.

Subsided (verb) Synonym: Abated

[intransitive] to become calmer or quieter

· She waited nervously for his anger to subside.

· When the rain had subsided we continued our walk.

· The storm gradually subsided.

[intransitive] (of water) to go back to a normal level

· The flood waters gradually subsided.

[intransitive] (of land or a building) to sink to a lower level; to sink lower into the ground

· Weak foundations caused the house to subside.

Tackle (verb) Synonym: Confront

[transitive] tackle something to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation

· The government is determined to tackle inflation.

· I think I'll tackle the repairs next weekend.

· Firefighters tackled a blaze in a garage last night.

[transitive] tackle somebody (about something) to speak to somebody about a problem or difficult situation

· I tackled him about the money he owed me.

[transitive, intransitive] tackle (somebody) (in football (soccer ), hockey, etc.) to try and take the ball from an opponent

· He was tackled just outside the penalty area.

[intransitive, transitive] tackle (somebody) (in rugby or American football) to make an opponent fall to the ground in order to stop them running

· Khalid tackled Akbar in the match to prevent him to score.

[transitive] tackle somebody to deal with somebody who is violent or threatening you

· He tackled a masked intruder at his home.

Unrealistic (adjective) Synonym: Impractical

Not showing or accepting things as they are

· Unrealistic expectations

· It is unrealistic to expect them to be able to solve the problem immediately.

· They were accused of being unrealistic in their demands.

Unwrapped (verb) Synonym: Open

Unwrap something to take off the paper, etc. that covers or protects something

· Don't unwrap your present until your birthday.

Upward (adjective) Synonym: Skyward

Pointing towards or facing a higher place

· An upward gaze

Increasing in amount or price

· An upward movement in property prices

· An upward trend in the rate of unemployment

Urgency (noun) Synonym: Importance

The quality of needing to be dealt with or happen immediately

· This is a matter of some urgency.

· The attack added a new urgency to the peace talks.

The feeling or belief that something needs to be dealt with immediately

· There was a note of urgency in his voice.

Urgent (adjective) Synonym: Pressing

That needs to be dealt with or happen immediately

· An urgent appeal for information

· ’Mark the message ‘urgent’, please.

· The law is in urgent need of reform.

· They’ve called an urgent meeting for this evening.

· (formal) It is urgent that the law be changed.

Showing that you think that something needs to be dealt with immediately

· An urgent whisper

· Her voice sounded urgent on the phone.

Vegetation (noun) Synonym: Greenery

Plants in general, especially the plants that are found in a particular area or environment

· The hills are covered in lush green vegetation.Desert areas have little vegetation.

Virtually (adverb) Synonym: Basically

Almost or very nearly, so that any slight difference is not important

To be virtually impossible

Virtually all students will be exempted from the tax.

He virtually admitted he was guilty.

(computing) by the use of computer software that makes something appear to exist; using virtual reality technology

· I have already visited the virtual park and you know the animals feel real.

Wheelchair ( noun) Synonym: Wheel Chair

A special chair with wheels, used by people who cannot walk because of illness, an accident, etc.

· Does the hotel have wheelchair access?

· He's been confined to a wheelchair since the accident.wheelchair users

Workforce (noun) Synonym: Labour

All the people who work for a particular company, organization, etc.

· The factory has a 1 000-strong workforce.

· Two thirds of the workforce is/are women.

All the people in a country or an area who are available for work

· A quarter of the local workforce is/are educated workforce