IELTS Book 7 Test 2 Section 3


Arduous adjective Synonym: Exhausting

Involving a lot of effort and energy, especially over a period of time

· An arduous journey across the AndesThe work was arduous.

Conventional adjective Synonym: Traditional

(often disapproving) tending to follow what is done or considered acceptable by society in general; normal and ordinary, and perhaps not very interesting

Conventional behaviour/morality

· She's very conventional in her views.

[usually before noun] following what is traditional or the way something has been done for a long time

Conventional methods/approachesconventional medicine

· It's not a hotel, in the conventional sense, but rather a whole village turned into a hotel.

· You can use a microwave or cook it in a conventional oven.

[usually before noun] (especially of weapons) not nuclear

· Conventional forces/weapons

· A conventional war would still cause unacceptable devastation.

· A conventional power station (= using oil or coal as fuel, rather than nuclear power)

Efficiency noun Synonym: Effectiveness

[uncountable] the quality of doing something well with no waste of time or money

· Improvements in efficiency at the factory

· I was impressed by the efficiency with which she handled the crisis.

Efficiencies [plural] ways of wasting less time and money or of saving time or money

· We are looking at our business to see where savings and efficiencies can be made.

[uncountable] (specialist) the relationship between the amount of energy that goes into a machine or an engine, and the amount that it produces

· Efficiency of a machine is directly proportioned to the energy it takes to produce output.

Handrails noun Synonym: Banister

A long narrow bar that you can hold onto for support, for example when you are going up or down stairs

· In his new house, he has used handrails with the stairs so that his old parents could support themselves while climbing on the stairs.

Implemented verb Synonym: Started, Commenced

To start something new or to order the subject to do something particular

· To implement changes/decisions/policies/reforms

· A new work programme for young people will be implemented.

Inhabitant noun Synonym: Resident

A person or an animal that lives in a particular place

· The oldest inhabitant of the villagea town of 11 000 inhabitants

Integrated adjective Synonym: Labour

In which many different parts are closely connected and work successfully together

· An integrated programme of patient carean integrated transport system (= including buses, trains, taxis, etc.)

· An integrated school (= attended by students of all races and religions)

Underlying adjective Synonym: Intertext

Important in a situation but not always easily noticed or stated clearly

· The underlying assumption is that the amount of money available is limited.

· Unemployment may be an underlying cause of the rising crime rate.

Existing under the surface of something else

· The underlying rock formation