IELTS Book 8 Test 4 Section 2
8 T4 S2
Reckless (adjective) Synonym: Rash
Showing a lack of care about danger and the possible results of your actions
· He showed a reckless disregard for his own safety.
· She was a good rider, but reckless.
· He had always been reckless with money.
· To cause death by reckless driving
Pose (verb) Synonym: Position
[transitive] pose something to create a threat, problem, etc. that has to be dealt with
· To pose a threat/challenge/danger/risk
· The task poses no special problems.
[transitive] pose a question (formal) to ask a question, especially one that needs serious thought
· Khalid posed a question to solve the situation prevailing in his home.
[intransitive] pose (for somebody/something) to sit or stand in a particular position in order to be painted, drawn or photographed
· The delegates posed for a group photograph.
· They posed briefly for photographs before driving off.
[intransitive] pose as somebody to pretend to be somebody in order to trick other people
· The gang entered the building posing as workmen.
[intransitive] (usually used in the progressive tenses) (disapproving) to dress or behave in a way that is intended to impress other people
· I saw him out posing in his new sports car.
Engender (verb) Synonym: Arouse
Engender something (formal) to make a feeling or situation exist
· The issue engendered controversy.
· Problems engendered by the restructuring of the company
· The place engendered immediate feelings of friendship and belonging.
Pesticide (Noun) Synonym: Herbicide
A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects
· Vegetables grown without the use of pesticides
· Crops sprayed with pesticide
Potent (Adjective) Synonym: Effective
Having a strong effect on your body or mind
· A potent drug
· A very potent alcoholic brew
· A potent argument
· The vodka must have been pretty potent stuff.
· A potent force
Immune (Adjective) Synonym: Exempt
Immune (to something) that cannot catch or be affected by a particular disease or illness
· Adults are often immune to German measles.
Immune (to something) not affected by something
· You'll eventually become immune to criticism.
· Few men are immune to her charms.
· Our business is far from immune to economic conditions.
Immune (from something) protected from something and therefore able to avoid it
· No one should be immune from prosecution.
· Not even the President’s wife was immune from criticism by the press.
Insecticides (noun) Synonym: Defoliant
A chemical used for killing insects
· Crops sprayed with insecticides
Proliferation (noun) Synonym: Expansion
The sudden increase in the number or amount of something; a large number of a particular thing
· Attempts to prevent cancer cell proliferation
· A proliferation of personal computers
Outbreak (Noun) Synonym: Disruption
The sudden start of something unpleasant, especially violence or a disease
· The outbreak of war
· An outbreak of typhoid
· Outbreaks of rain are expected in the afternoon.
· The events that led to the outbreak of World War I
· An outbreak of hostilities
Necessitate (verb) Synonym: Contrain
To make something necessary
· Recent financial scandals have necessitated changes in parliamentary procedures.
Necessitate doing something
· Increased traffic necessitated widening the road.
Necessitate somebody/something doing something
· His new job necessitated him/his getting up at six.
Escalate (Verb) Synonym: Grow
To become or make something greater, worse, more serious, etc.
Escalate (into something)
· The fighting escalated into a full-scale war.
· The escalating costs of health care
Escalate something (into something)
· We do not want to escalate the war.
Predator (Noun) Synonym: Hunter
An animal that kills and eats other animals
· Some animals have no natural predators.
· The relationship between predator and prey
(disapproving) a person or an organization that uses weaker people for their own advantage
· To protect domestic industry from foreign predators
Native (Adjective) Synonym: Indegenous
[only before noun] connected with the place where you were born and lived for the first years of your life
· your native land/country/city
· It is a long time since he has visited his native Chile.
· Her native language is Korean.
[only before noun] connected with the place where you have always lived or have lived for a long time
· Native Berliners
[only before noun] (sometimes offensive) connected with the people who originally lived in a country before other people, especially white people, came there
· Native peoples
· Native art
Native (to…) (of animals and plants) existing naturally in a place
· The native plants of America
· The tiger is native to India.
· Native species
· Some animals are in danger because their native habitat is being destroyed.
[only before noun] that you have naturally without having to learn it
· Native cunning
Obnoxious (Adjective) Synonym: Offensive
Extremely unpleasant, especially in a way that offends people
· Obnoxious behavior
· A thoroughly obnoxious little man obnoxious odours
Nuisance (Noun) Synonym: Annoyance
[countable, usually singular] a thing, person or situation that is annoying or causes trouble or problems
· I don't want to be a nuisance so tell me if you want to be alone.
· I hope you're not making a nuisance of yourself.
· It's a nuisance having to go back tomorrow.
· What a nuisance!
Eradicate (Verb) Synonym: Wipe
To destroy or get rid of something completely, especially something bad
· Diphtheria has been virtually eradicated in the United States.
Eradicate something from something
· We are determined to eradicate racism from our sport.
Weed (Noun) Synonym: Plant, Drug
[countable] a wild plant growing where it is not wanted, especially among crops or garden plants
· The yard was overgrown with weeds.
· Routine maintenance of the garden consists of keeping weeds under control.
· There were weeds pushing up through the gravel.
[uncountable] any wild plant without flowers that grows in water and forms a green floating mass
The weed [singular] (humorous) tobacco or cigarettes
· I wish I could give up the weed (= stop smoking).
[uncountable] (informal) the drug cannabis
· Don’t take week (cannabis)
[countable] (British English, informal, disapproving) a person with a weak character or body
· Don’t be such a weed!