IELTS Book 8 Test 4 Section 2

8 T4 S2

Reckless (adjective) Synonym: Rash

Showing a lack of care about danger and the possible results of your actions

· He showed a reckless disregard for his own safety.

· She was a good rider, but reckless.

· He had always been reckless with money.

· To cause death by reckless driving

Pose (verb) Synonym: Position

[transitive] pose something to create a threat, problem, etc. that has to be dealt with

· To pose a threat/challenge/danger/risk

· The task poses no special problems.

[transitive] pose a question (formal) to ask a question, especially one that needs serious thought

· Khalid posed a question to solve the situation prevailing in his home.

[intransitive] pose (for somebody/something) to sit or stand in a particular position in order to be painted, drawn or photographed

· The delegates posed for a group photograph.

· They posed briefly for photographs before driving off.

[intransitive] pose as somebody to pretend to be somebody in order to trick other people

· The gang entered the building posing as workmen.

[intransitive] (usually used in the progressive tenses) (disapproving) to dress or behave in a way that is intended to impress other people

· I saw him out posing in his new sports car.

Engender (verb) Synonym: Arouse

Engender something (formal) to make a feeling or situation exist

· The issue engendered controversy.

· Problems engendered by the restructuring of the company

· The place engendered immediate feelings of friendship and belonging.

Pesticide (Noun) Synonym: Herbicide

A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects

· Vegetables grown without the use of pesticides

· Crops sprayed with pesticide

Potent (Adjective) Synonym: Effective

Having a strong effect on your body or mind

· A potent drug

· A very potent alcoholic brew

· A potent argument

· The vodka must have been pretty potent stuff.


· A potent force

Immune (Adjective) Synonym: Exempt

Immune (to something) that cannot catch or be affected by a particular disease or illness

· Adults are often immune to German measles.

Immune (to something) not affected by something

· You'll eventually become immune to criticism.

· Few men are immune to her charms.

· Our business is far from immune to economic conditions.

Immune (from something) protected from something and therefore able to avoid it

· No one should be immune from prosecution.

· Not even the President’s wife was immune from criticism by the press.

Insecticides (noun) Synonym: Defoliant

A chemical used for killing insects

· Crops sprayed with insecticides

Proliferation (noun) Synonym: Expansion

The sudden increase in the number or amount of something; a large number of a particular thing

· Attempts to prevent cancer cell proliferation

· A proliferation of personal computers

Outbreak (Noun) Synonym: Disruption

The sudden start of something unpleasant, especially violence or a disease

· The outbreak of war

· An outbreak of typhoid

· Outbreaks of rain are expected in the afternoon.

· The events that led to the outbreak of World War I

· An outbreak of hostilities

Necessitate (verb) Synonym: Contrain

To make something necessary

Necessitate something

· Recent financial scandals have necessitated changes in parliamentary procedures.

Necessitate doing something

· Increased traffic necessitated widening the road.

Necessitate somebody/something doing something

· His new job necessitated him/his getting up at six.

Escalate (Verb) Synonym: Grow

To become or make something greater, worse, more serious, etc.

Escalate (into something)

· The fighting escalated into a full-scale war.

· The escalating costs of health care

Escalate something (into something)

· We do not want to escalate the war.

Predator (Noun) Synonym: Hunter

An animal that kills and eats other animals

· Some animals have no natural predators.

· The relationship between predator and prey

(disapproving) a person or an organization that uses weaker people for their own advantage

· To protect domestic industry from foreign predators

Native (Adjective) Synonym: Indegenous

[only before noun] connected with the place where you were born and lived for the first years of your life

· your native land/country/city

· It is a long time since he has visited his native Chile.

· Her native language is Korean.

[only before noun] connected with the place where you have always lived or have lived for a long time

· Native Berliners

[only before noun] (sometimes offensive) connected with the people who originally lived in a country before other people, especially white people, came there

· Native peoples

· Native art

Native (to…) (of animals and plants) existing naturally in a place

· The native plants of America

· The tiger is native to India.

· Native species

· Some animals are in danger because their native habitat is being destroyed.

[only before noun] that you have naturally without having to learn it

· Native cunning

Obnoxious (Adjective) Synonym: Offensive

Extremely unpleasant, especially in a way that offends people

· Obnoxious behavior

· A thoroughly obnoxious little man obnoxious odours

Nuisance (Noun) Synonym: Annoyance

[countable, usually singular] a thing, person or situation that is annoying or causes trouble or problems

· I don't want to be a nuisance so tell me if you want to be alone.

· I hope you're not making a nuisance of yourself.

· It's a nuisance having to go back tomorrow.

· What a nuisance!

Eradicate (Verb) Synonym: Wipe

To destroy or get rid of something completely, especially something bad

Eradicate something

· Diphtheria has been virtually eradicated in the United States.

Eradicate something from something

· We are determined to eradicate racism from our sport.

Weed (Noun) Synonym: Plant, Drug

[countable] a wild plant growing where it is not wanted, especially among crops or garden plants

· The yard was overgrown with weeds.

· Routine maintenance of the garden consists of keeping weeds under control.

· There were weeds pushing up through the gravel.

[uncountable] any wild plant without flowers that grows in water and forms a green floating mass

The weed [singular] (humorous) tobacco or cigarettes

· I wish I could give up the weed (= stop smoking).

[uncountable] (informal) the drug cannabis

· Don’t take week (cannabis)

[countable] (British English, informal, disapproving) a person with a weak character or body

· Don’t be such a weed!