IELTS Book 8 Test 4 Section 3

8 T4 S3

Stray (Verb) Synonym: Wandering

[intransitive] (+ adv./prep.) to move away from the place where you should be, without intending to

· He strayed into the path of an oncoming car.

· Her eyes kept straying over to the clock on the wall.

· His hand strayed to the telephone.

· He can’t have strayed far.

· I strayed a few blocks in the wrong direction and became hopelessly lost.

[intransitive] (+ adv./prep.) to begin to think about or discuss a different subject from the one you should be thinking about or discussing

· My mind kept straying back to our last talk together.

· We seem to be straying from the main theme of the debate.

· The conversation had begun to stray into dangerous territory.

[intransitive] (of a person who is married or in a relationship) to have a sexual relationship with somebody who is not your usual partner

· It had never occurred to her that her husband might stray while he was away on business.

Complicate (Verb) Synonym: Confuse

Complicate something to make something more difficult to do, understand or deal with

· I do not wish to complicate the task more than is necessary.

· To complicate matters further, there will be no transport available till 8 o'clock.

· The issue is complicated by the fact that a vital document is missing.

Exhaustive (adjective) Synonym: Tiresome

Including everything possible; very thorough or complete

· Exhaustive research/tests

· This list is not intended to be exhaustive.

Abundance (Noun) Synonym: Affluence

[singular, uncountable] abundance (of something) (formal) a large quantity that is more than enough

· Please share with someone needy, I already have it in abundance.

Taxonomy (Noun) Synonym: Classification

[uncountable] the scientific process of classifying things (= arranging them into groups)

· Plant taxonomy

[countable] a particular system of classifying things

· Bloom’s Taxonomy

Species (Noun) Synonym: Creatures

A group into which animals, plants, etc. that are able to breed with each other and produce healthy young are divided, smaller than a genus and identified by a Latin name

· A rare species of beetle

· There are many species of dog(s).

· A conservation area for endangered species

Pitfall (Noun) Synonym: Hazard

A danger or difficulty, especially one that is hidden or not obvious at first

· The potential pitfalls of buying a house

· Getting professional advice will help you avoid the most obvious pitfalls.

Vegetation (Noun) Synonym: Greenery

Plants in general, especially the plants that are found in a particular area or environment

· The hills are covered in lush green vegetation.

· Desert areas have little vegetation.

Forceps (Noun) Synonym: Instrument

An instrument used by doctors, with two long thin parts for picking up and holding things

· A pair of forceps

· A forceps delivery (= a birth in which the baby is delivered with the help of forceps)

Moisten (Verb) Synonym: Dampen

[transitive, intransitive] moisten (something) to become or make something slightly wet

· He moistened his lips before he spoke.

· Moisten the tape with water before use.

· Wash the wound gently with a piece of moistened cotton wool.

Bait (noun) Synonym: Enticement

Food put on a hook to catch fish or in nets, traps, etc. to catch animals or birds

· Live worms are used as bait.

· The fish took the bait.

Forge (Verb) Synonym: Counterfeit

[transitive] forge something to put a lot of effort into making something successful or strong so that it will last

· A move to forge new links between management and workers

· Strategic alliances are being forged with major European companies.

· She forged a new career in the music business.

· They forged a lead in the first 30 minutes of the game.

[transitive] forge something to make an illegal copy of something in order to cheat people

· To forge a passport/banknote/cheque

· He's getting good at forging his mother's signature.

· New digital techniques can spot paintings that have been forged.

[transitive] forge something (from something) to shape metal by heating it in a fire and hitting it with a hammer; to make an object in this way

· swords forged from steel

[intransitive] + adv./prep. (formal) to move forward in a steady but powerful way

· He forged through the crowds to the front of the stage.

· She forged into the lead (= in a competition, race, etc.).

Debris Noun Synonym: Rubble

Pieces of wood, metal, brick, etc. that are left after something has been destroyed

· Emergency teams are still clearing the debris from the plane crash.

· Several people were injured by flying debris in the explosion.

(formal) rubbish/garbage or pieces of material that are left somewhere and are not wanted

· Clear away leaves and other garden debris from the pond.

· The debris of their lunch