Book 7 Test 1 Section 1

Ancestry ( noun) Synonym: Pedigree

The family or the race of people that you come from

· To have Scottish ancestry

· He was able to trace his ancestry back over 1 000 years.

Exploit ( verb) Synonym: Misuse

Exploit something (disapproving) to treat a person or situation as an opportunity to gain an advantage for yourself

· He exploited his father's name to get himself a job.

· She realized that her youth and inexperience were being exploited.

· The opposition parties will always exploit government problems to their own advantage.

Exploit somebody (disapproving) to treat somebody unfairly by making them work and not giving them much in return

· What is being done to stop employers from exploiting young people?

Exploit something to use something well in order to gain as much from it as possible

· She fully exploits the humour of her role in the play.

· Teachers should be exploiting computers in education.

· To develop or use something for business or industry

Exploit something

· No minerals have yet been exploited in Antarctica.

Exploit something for something

· Countries exploiting the rainforests for hardwood

Extinction noun Synonym: Annihilation

A situation in which a plant, an animal, a way of life, etc. stops existing

  • A tribe threatened with extinction/in danger of extinction
  • The mountain gorilla is on the verge of extinction.
  • We know of several mass extinctions in the earth's history.
  • A campaign to save wild koalas from extinction
  • Will technology in music drive creativity to extinction?

Illuminate verb Synonym: Enlighten

lluminate something (formal) to shine light on something

· Floodlights illuminated the stadium.

· The earth is illuminated by the sun.

Illuminate something (formal) to make something clearer or easier to understand

· This text illuminates the philosopher's early thinking.

Illuminate something to decorate a street, building, etc. with bright lights for a special occasion

· We have just finished illuminating our street for the upcoming event.

Illuminate something (literary) to make a person’s face, etc. seem bright and excited

· Her smile illuminated her entire being.

Manoeuvre noun Synonym: Tactic

[countable] a movement performed with care and skill

· a complicated/skilfulmanoeuvre

· You will be asked to perform some standard manoeuvres during your driving test.

[countable, uncountable] a clever plan, action or movement that is used to give somebody an advantage

· Diplomatic manoeuvres

· The amendment was somehow introduced by political manoeuvre.

Manoeuvres [plural] military exercises involving a large number of soldiers, ships, etc.

· The army is on manoeuvres in the desert.

Mysterious adjective Synonym: Enigmatic

Difficult to understand or explain; strange

· He died in mysterious circumstances.

· A mysterious illness is affecting all the animals.

(especially of people) strange and interesting because you do not know much about them

· A mysterious young woman is living next door.

(of people) not saying much about something, especially when other people want to know more

· He was being very mysterious about where he was going.

Navigation noun Synonym: Itinerary

The skill or the process of planning a route for a ship or other vehicle and taking it there

· Navigation systemsan expert in navigation

The movement of ships or aircraft

· The right of navigation through international waters

The way that you move around a website or the Internet when you are looking for information

· The site was redesigned to improve navigation.

Nocturnal adjective Synonym: Nightly

(of animals) active at night

· These animals are strictly nocturnal.

· These insects are largely nocturnal.

(formal) happening during the night

· A nocturnal visit

Obstacle noun Synonym: Hindrance

Obstacle (to something/to doing something) a situation, an event, etc. that makes it difficult for you to do or achieve something

· A lack of qualifications can be a major obstacle to finding a job.

· So far, we have managed to overcome all the obstacles that have been placed in our path.

· The MP claims that there is now no obstacle to him standing at the next general election.

An object that is in your way and that makes it difficult for you to move forward

· The area was full of streams and bogs and other natural obstacles.

(In showjumping) a fence, etc. for a horse to jump over

· My horse is trained enough to cross the obstacle.

Phantom noun Synonym: Ghost

A ghost

· The phantom of his dead father

A thing that exists only in your imagination

· Phantoms and chimeras inhabited her brain.

Pioneers noun Synonym: Trailblazer

Pioneer (in/of something) a person who is the first to study and develop a particular area of knowledge, culture, etc. that other people then continue to develop

· A pioneer in the field of microsurgery

· A pioneer design (= one that introduces new ideas, methods, etc.)

One of the first people to go to a particular area in order to live and work there

· The pioneer spirit

Sensation noun Synonym: Feeling

[countable] a feeling that you get when something affects your body

· A tingling/burning, etc. sensation

· I had a sensation of falling, as if in a dream.

[uncountable] the ability to feel through your sense of touch

· She seemed to have lost all sensation in her arms.

[countable, usually singular] a general feeling or impression that is difficult to explain; an experience or a memory

· He had the eerie sensation of being watched.

· When I arrived, I had the sensation that she had been expecting me.

[countable, usually singular, uncountable] very great surprise, excitement, or interest among a lot of people; the person or the thing that causes this surprise

· News of his arrest caused a sensation.

· The band became a sensation overnight.