IELTS Book 7 Test 2 Section 2


Aesthetic adjective Synonym: Beautiful

Concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things

· An aesthetic appreciation of the landscape

· The works of art are judged on purely aesthetic grounds

· The benefits of conservation are both financial and aesthetic.

Made in an artistic way and beautiful to look at

· Their furniture was more aesthetic than functional.

Collateral noun Synonym: Indirect, Secondary

[uncountable] (finance) property or something valuable that you promise to give to somebody if you cannot pay back money that you borrow

· We had put our house up as collateral for our bank loan.

Colleagues noun Synonym: Co-worker

A person that you work with, especially in a profession or a business

· A colleague of mine from the office

· We were friends and colleagues for more than 20 years.

· The Prime Minister and his Cabinet colleagues

Commitment noun Synonym: Pledge, Guarantee

[countable, uncountable] a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way; a promise to support somebody/something; the fact of committing yourself

Commitment (to somebody/something)

· She doesn't want to make a big emotional commitment

· To Steve at the moment.

· The government’s commitment to public services

Commitment to do/doing something

· The company's commitment to providing quality at a reasonable price has been vital to its success.

[uncountable] commitment (to somebody/something) the willingness to work hard and give your energy and time to a job or an activity

· A career as an actor requires one hundred per cent commitment.

[countable] a thing that you have promised or agreed to do, or that you have to do

· He's busy for the next month with filming commitments.

· Women very often have to juggle work with their family commitments.

[uncountable, countable] commitment (of something) (to something) agreeing to use money, time or people in order to achieve something

· The commitment of resources to education

· Achieving success at this level requires a commitment of time and energy.

Conservative adjective Synonym: Orthodox, Traditional

Opposed to great or sudden social change; showing that you prefer traditional styles and values

· The conservative views of his parentsmusic which is accessible to an audience with extremely conservative tastes

· Her style of dress was never conservative.

(also Conservative) connected with the British Conservative Party

· Conservative members/supporters

(of an estimate) lower than what is probably the real amount or number

· At a conservative estimate, he'll be earning £50 000.

Cryptosporidium noun Synonym: A Parasite

A parasite found in water that causes infections inside the body

· Cryptosporidium is responsible for many of the human diseases relating to the stomach and intestine.

Emission noun Synonym: Discharge, Diffusion

[uncountable] (formal) the production or sending out of light, heat, gas, etc.

· The emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphereemission controls

[countable] gas, etc. that is sent out into the air

· The government has pledged to clean up industrial emissions.

Enormous adjective Synonym: Immense

Extremely large

· An enormous house/dogan enormous amount of timeenormous interest

· The problems facing the President are enormous.

Externalities noun Synonym: Face, Expanse

[countable] (economics) a consequence of an industrial or commercial activity which affects other people or things without this being reflected in market prices

· Pollution is a negative externality that imposes a cost—reduced happiness—on the victims.

[uncountable] (philosophy) the fact of existing outside the person or thing that is aware of it

· Man’s externality to an indifferent natural world

Fertilisers noun Synonym: Manure

A substance added to soil to make plants grow more successfully

· Artificial/chemical fertilizers

· Liquid fertilizera bag of fertilizer

· He spread fertilizer on the field with a rake.

Hectare noun Synonym: Measuring Unit

A unit for measuring an area of land; 10 000 square metres or about 2.5 acres

Hedgerows noun Synonym: Bush

(especially in Britain) a line of bushes planted along the edge of a field or road

· In Britain, it is mostly a custom to plant hedgerows along the paths.

Immediate adjective Synonym: Instant

Happening or done without delay

· An immediate reaction/response

· To take immediate action

· RAM stores information for immediate access.

[usually before noun] existing now and needing urgent attention

· Our immediate concern is to help the families of those who died.

· The effects of global warming, while not immediate, are potentially catastrophic.

· The hospital says she's out of immediate danger.

· The report focuses on some of the more immediate problems facing us.

[only before noun] next to or very close to a particular place or time

· In the immediate vicinity

· The prospects for the immediate future are good.

· In the immediate aftermath of the war

· The director is standing on her immediate right.

· My immediate predecessor in the job (= the person who had the job just before me)

[only before noun] nearest in relationship or rank

· The funeral was attended by her immediate family (= her parents, children, brothers and sisters)only.

· He is my immediate superior (= the person directly above me) in the company.

[only before noun] having a direct effect

· The immediate cause of death is unknown.

Lapwing noun Synonym: a Bird

A black and white bird with a row of feathers (called a crest ) standing up on its head

· Lapwing is found in Indian Hills.

Livestock noun Synonym: Labour

the animals kept on a farm, for example cows or sheep

Memorable adjective Synonym: Unforgetable

Memorable (for something) special, good or unusual and therefore worth remembering or easy to remember

· A truly memorable occasion

· The city is memorable for its fantastic beaches.

· Her novels are full of memorable characters.

Monoculture noun Synonym: Repeatation

[uncountable] the practice of growing only one type of crop on a certain area of land

· There is mostly a monoculture prevailed in the Pothohaur Plateau.

[countable, uncountable] a society consisting of people who are all the same race, all share the same beliefs, etc.

· A global economic monoculture

Onward adjective Synonym: Continuing

Continuing or moving forward

· Ticket prices include your flight and onward rail journey.

· The onward march of time

Partridge noun Synonym: A Bird

A brown bird with a round body and a short tail; that people hunt for sport or food; the meat of this bird

· Partridge is a very costly bird in Pakistan.

Pesticide noun Synonym: Herbicide

A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects

· Vegetables grown without the use of pesticidescrops sprayed with pesticide

Premium noun Synonym: Bonus

An amount of money that you pay once or regularly for an insurance policy

· A monthly premium of £6.25

An extra payment added to the basic rate

· You have to pay a high premium for express delivery.

· A premium of 10% is paid out after 20 years.

· He was willing to pay a premium for a house near the sea.

Quantified verb Synonym: Measured

Quantify something to describe or express something as an amount or a number

· The risks to health are impossible to quantify.

Remarkable adjective Synonym: Astonishing

Unusual or surprising in a way that causes people to take notice

· A remarkable achievement/career/talentShe was a truly remarkable woman.

· What is even more remarkable about the whole thing is…

Remarkable for something

· The area is remarkable for its scenery.

Remarkable that…

· It is remarkable that nobody noticed sooner.

Staggering adjective Synonym: Astounding

So great, shocking or surprising that it is difficult to believe

· They paid a staggering £5 million for the house.

Sustainable adjective Synonym: Continual

Involving the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment

· Sustainable forest managementan environmentally sustainable society

That can continue or be continued for a long time

· Sustainable economic growth

· Unfortunately, this level of output is not sustainable.

Unstoppable adjective Synonym: Irrepressible

That cannot be stopped or prevented

· An unstoppable rise in prices

· On form, the team was simply unstoppable.