IELTS Book 7 Test 2 Section 2
Aesthetic adjective Synonym: Beautiful
Concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things
· An aesthetic appreciation of the landscape
· The works of art are judged on purely aesthetic grounds
· The benefits of conservation are both financial and aesthetic.
Made in an artistic way and beautiful to look at
· Their furniture was more aesthetic than functional.
Collateral noun Synonym: Indirect, Secondary
[uncountable] (finance) property or something valuable that you promise to give to somebody if you cannot pay back money that you borrow
· We had put our house up as collateral for our bank loan.
Colleagues noun Synonym: Co-worker
A person that you work with, especially in a profession or a business
· A colleague of mine from the office
· We were friends and colleagues for more than 20 years.
· The Prime Minister and his Cabinet colleagues
Commitment noun Synonym: Pledge, Guarantee
[countable, uncountable] a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way; a promise to support somebody/something; the fact of committing yourself
Commitment (to somebody/something)
· She doesn't want to make a big emotional commitment
· To Steve at the moment.
· The government’s commitment to public services
Commitment to do/doing something
· The company's commitment to providing quality at a reasonable price has been vital to its success.
[uncountable] commitment (to somebody/something) the willingness to work hard and give your energy and time to a job or an activity
· A career as an actor requires one hundred per cent commitment.
[countable] a thing that you have promised or agreed to do, or that you have to do
· He's busy for the next month with filming commitments.
· Women very often have to juggle work with their family commitments.
[uncountable, countable] commitment (of something) (to something) agreeing to use money, time or people in order to achieve something
· The commitment of resources to education
· Achieving success at this level requires a commitment of time and energy.
Conservative adjective Synonym: Orthodox, Traditional
Opposed to great or sudden social change; showing that you prefer traditional styles and values
· The conservative views of his parentsmusic which is accessible to an audience with extremely conservative tastes
· Her style of dress was never conservative.
(also Conservative) connected with the British Conservative Party
· Conservative members/supporters
(of an estimate) lower than what is probably the real amount or number
· At a conservative estimate, he'll be earning £50 000.
Cryptosporidium noun Synonym: A Parasite
A parasite found in water that causes infections inside the body
· Cryptosporidium is responsible for many of the human diseases relating to the stomach and intestine.
Emission noun Synonym: Discharge, Diffusion
[uncountable] (formal) the production or sending out of light, heat, gas, etc.
· The emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphereemission controls
[countable] gas, etc. that is sent out into the air
· The government has pledged to clean up industrial emissions.
Enormous adjective Synonym: Immense
· An enormous house/dogan enormous amount of timeenormous interest
· The problems facing the President are enormous.
Externalities noun Synonym: Face, Expanse
[countable] (economics) a consequence of an industrial or commercial activity which affects other people or things without this being reflected in market prices
· Pollution is a negative externality that imposes a cost—reduced happiness—on the victims.
[uncountable] (philosophy) the fact of existing outside the person or thing that is aware of it
· Man’s externality to an indifferent natural world
Fertilisers noun Synonym: Manure
A substance added to soil to make plants grow more successfully
· Artificial/chemical fertilizers
· Liquid fertilizera bag of fertilizer
· He spread fertilizer on the field with a rake.
Hectare noun Synonym: Measuring Unit
A unit for measuring an area of land; 10 000 square metres or about 2.5 acres
Hedgerows noun Synonym: Bush
(especially in Britain) a line of bushes planted along the edge of a field or road
· In Britain, it is mostly a custom to plant hedgerows along the paths.
Immediate adjective Synonym: Instant
Happening or done without delay
· An immediate reaction/response
· To take immediate action
· RAM stores information for immediate access.
[usually before noun] existing now and needing urgent attention
· Our immediate concern is to help the families of those who died.
· The effects of global warming, while not immediate, are potentially catastrophic.
· The hospital says she's out of immediate danger.
· The report focuses on some of the more immediate problems facing us.
[only before noun] next to or very close to a particular place or time
· In the immediate vicinity
· The prospects for the immediate future are good.
· In the immediate aftermath of the war
· The director is standing on her immediate right.
· My immediate predecessor in the job (= the person who had the job just before me)
[only before noun] nearest in relationship or rank
· The funeral was attended by her immediate family (= her parents, children, brothers and sisters)only.
· He is my immediate superior (= the person directly above me) in the company.
[only before noun] having a direct effect
· The immediate cause of death is unknown.
Lapwing noun Synonym: a Bird
A black and white bird with a row of feathers (called a crest ) standing up on its head
· Lapwing is found in Indian Hills.
Livestock noun Synonym: Labour
the animals kept on a farm, for example cows or sheep
Memorable adjective Synonym: Unforgetable
Memorable (for something) special, good or unusual and therefore worth remembering or easy to remember
· A truly memorable occasion
· The city is memorable for its fantastic beaches.
· Her novels are full of memorable characters.
Monoculture noun Synonym: Repeatation
[uncountable] the practice of growing only one type of crop on a certain area of land
· There is mostly a monoculture prevailed in the Pothohaur Plateau.
[countable, uncountable] a society consisting of people who are all the same race, all share the same beliefs, etc.
· A global economic monoculture
Onward adjective Synonym: Continuing
Continuing or moving forward
· Ticket prices include your flight and onward rail journey.
· The onward march of time
Partridge noun Synonym: A Bird
A brown bird with a round body and a short tail; that people hunt for sport or food; the meat of this bird
· Partridge is a very costly bird in Pakistan.
Pesticide noun Synonym: Herbicide
A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects
· Vegetables grown without the use of pesticidescrops sprayed with pesticide
Premium noun Synonym: Bonus
An amount of money that you pay once or regularly for an insurance policy
· A monthly premium of £6.25
An extra payment added to the basic rate
· You have to pay a high premium for express delivery.
· A premium of 10% is paid out after 20 years.
· He was willing to pay a premium for a house near the sea.
Quantified verb Synonym: Measured
Quantify something to describe or express something as an amount or a number
· The risks to health are impossible to quantify.
Remarkable adjective Synonym: Astonishing
Unusual or surprising in a way that causes people to take notice
· A remarkable achievement/career/talentShe was a truly remarkable woman.
· What is even more remarkable about the whole thing is…
Remarkable for something
· The area is remarkable for its scenery.
· It is remarkable that nobody noticed sooner.
Staggering adjective Synonym: Astounding
So great, shocking or surprising that it is difficult to believe
· They paid a staggering £5 million for the house.
Sustainable adjective Synonym: Continual
Involving the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment
· Sustainable forest managementan environmentally sustainable society
That can continue or be continued for a long time
· Sustainable economic growth
· Unfortunately, this level of output is not sustainable.
Unstoppable adjective Synonym: Irrepressible
That cannot be stopped or prevented
· An unstoppable rise in prices
· On form, the team was simply unstoppable.