Book 6 Test 3 Section 3

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill

Cellular (adjective) Synonym: Biological

Connected with or consisting of the cells of plants or animals

  • cellular structure/processes

Connected with a telephone system that works by radio instead of wires

  • a cellular network cellular radio

(British English) (of cloth) loosely woven for extra warmth

  • cellular blankets

Emission (noun) Synonym: Diffusion

[uncountable] (formal) the production or sending out of light, heat, gas, etc.

  • the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere emission controls

[countable] gas, etc. that is sent out into the air

  • The government has pledged to clean up industrial emissions.

Hypothesis (noun) Synonym: Proposition

[countable] an idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct

  • To formulate/confirm a hypothesis
  • a hypothesis about the function of dreams There is little evidence to support these hypotheses.

[uncountable] guesses and ideas that are not based on certain knowledge

  • It would be pointless to engage in hypothesis before we have the facts.

Incredibly (adverb) Synonym: Unbelievably


  • Incredibly lucky/stupid/difficult/beautiful incredibly attractive/boring

In a way that is very difficult to believe

  • Incredibly, she had no idea what was going on.

Indicators (noun) Synonym: Signs

A sign that shows you what something is like or how a situation is changing

  • The economic indicators are better than expected.
  • These atmospheric waves are a reliable indicator of weather changes.

A device on a machine that shows speed, pressure, etc.

  • a depth indicator

(British English) (North American English turn signal) (informal blinker North American English, British English) a light on a vehicle that flashes to show that the vehicle is going to turn left or right

  • Her right-hand indicator was flashing.

Infirmity (noun) Synonym: Affliction

Weakness or illness over a long period

  • We all fear disability or infirmity.the infirmities of old age

Intake (noun) Synonym: Consumption

[uncountable, countable] the amount of food, drink, etc. that you take into your body

  • high fluid intake to reduce your daily intake of salt

[countable, uncountable] the number of people who are allowed to enter a school, college, profession, etc. during a particular period

  • the annual student intake Intake in universities is down by 10%.

[countable] a place where liquid, air, etc. enters a machine the

  • Air/fuel intake

[countable, usually singular] an act of taking something in, especially breath

  • A sharp intake of breath

Lifespan (noun) Synonym: Lifetime

The length of time that something is likely to live, continue or function

  • Worms have a lifespan of a few months.

Likelihood (noun) Synonym: Possibility

The chance of something happening; how likely something is to happen

  • There is very little likelihood of that happening.

In all likelihood (= very probably)

  • The meeting will be canceled.

The likelihood is that (= it is likely that)

  • Unemployment figures will continue to fall.This reduces the likelihood that the treatment will be successful.

Longevity (noun) Synonym: Durability

Long life; the fact of lasting a long time

  • We wish you both health and longevity.
  • He prides himself on the longevity of the company.

Merely (adverb) Synonym: Slightly

Used meaning ‘only’ or ‘simply’ to emphasize a fact or something that you are saying

  • It is not merely a job, but a way of life.
  • He said nothing, merely smiled and watched her.
  • They agreed to go merely because they were getting paid for it.

Mimicked (verb) Synonym: Imitated

Mimic somebody/something | + speech to copy the way somebody speaks, moves, behaves, etc., especially in order to make other people laugh

She's always mimicking the teachers.He mimicked her southern accent.

Mimic something (specialist or formal) to look or behave like something else

  • The robot was programmed to mimic a series of human movements.
  • The creation of a vaccine that mimics the virus

Mortals (adjective) Synonym: Being

That cannot live for ever and must die

  • We are all mortal.

(literary) causing death or likely to cause death; very serious

  • a mortal blow/wound
  • To be in mortal danger
  • Her reputation suffered a mortal blow as a result of the scandal.

[only before noun] (formal) lasting until death

  • Mortal enemies
  • They were locked in mortal combat (= a fight that will only end with the death of one of them).

[only before noun] (formal) (of fear, etc.) extreme

  • We lived in mortal dread of him discovering our secret.

Organism (noun) Synonym: Living Thing

(biology or formal) a living thing, especially one that is extremely small

  • Even the simplest, single-celled organisms show examples of this behavior.
  • The cell is the unit of which all living organisms are composed.

(formal) a system consisting of parts that depend on each other

  • the social organism (= society)

Preservation (noun) Synonym: Storage

The act of keeping something in its original state or in good condition

  • Building/environmental/food preservation
  • A preservation group/society
  • The council has placed a preservation order on the building.

The act of making sure that something is kept

  • The central issue in the strike was the preservation of jobs.

The degree to which something has not been changed or damaged by age, weather, etc.

  • The paintings were in an excellent state of preservation.

Prevents (verb) Synonym: Avert

To stop somebody from doing something; to stop something from happening

Prevent something/somebody

  • The accident could have been prevented.
  • The government took steps to prevent a scandal.

Prevent somebody/something from doing something

  • He is prevented by law from holding a license.
  • Nothing would prevent him from speaking out against injustice.

Prevent (somebody/something) doing something(British English)

  • Nothing would prevent him/his speaking out against injustice.

Prolonging (verb) Synonym: Extend

Prolong something to make something last longer

  • The operation could prolong his life by two or three years.
  • Don't prolong the agony (= of not knowing something)—just tell us who won!

Radicals (adjective) Synonym: Far-reaching

Concerning the most basic and important parts of something; thorough and complete

  • the need for radical changes in education
  • demands for radical reform of the law
  • radical differences between the sexes

New, different and likely to have a great effect

  • radical ideas a radical solution to the problem radical proposals

In favor of thorough and complete political or social change

  • the radical wing of the party radical politicians/students/writers

Regimen (noun) Synonym: Procedure

A set of rules about food and exercise or medical treatment that you follow in order to stay healthy or to improve your health

  • a strict regimens daily regimen of exercise

Replicated (verb) Synonym: Copied

[transitive] replicate something (formal) to copy something exactly

  • Subsequent experiments failed to replicate these findings.
  • The format of the seminar day will be replicated in each Sports Council region.

[transitive, intransitive] replicate (itself) (specialist) (of a virus or a molecule) to produce exact copies of itself

  • The drug prevents the virus from replicating itself.

Synthesis (noun) Synonym: Amalgam

[uncountable, countable] synthesis (of something) the act of combining separate ideas, beliefs, styles, etc.; a mixture or combination of ideas, beliefs, styles, etc.

  • The synthesis of art with everyday life a synthesis of traditional and modern values

[uncountable] (specialist) the natural chemical production of a substance in animals and plants

  • protein synthesis
  • the synthesis of nucleic acids

[uncountable] (specialist) the artificial production of a substance that is present naturally in animals and Plants

  • the synthesis of penicillin

[uncountable] (specialist) the production of sounds, music or speech by electronic means

  • speech synthesis

Toxic (adjective) Synonym: Blockage

Containing poison; poisonous

  • toxic chemicals/fumes/gases/substances
  • to dispose of toxic waste
  • Many pesticides are highly toxic.

Vulnerability (noun) Synonym: Susceptibility

The quality of being weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally

vulnerability (of somebody/something) (to something)

  • the vulnerability of newborn babies to disease financial vulnerability
  • He was intensely aware of his own vulnerability